Anticancer potential of
curcumin
Bharat B. Aggarwal, Ph.D.
Cytokine Research Section,
Department of Bioimmunotherapy,
The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center,
Houston, Texas, U.S.A.


Source of Curcumin
Turmeric
(Curcuma longa)

Structure of curcumin
OO
CH3O
OCH3
Curcumin I
(77%)
HO
OH
OO
Curcumin II
OCH3
Demethoxycurcumin
(17%)
HO
OH
OO
Curcumin III
Bis-Demethoxycurcumin
(3%; less active)
HO
OH

Different stages of cancer progression and
its suppression by curcumin
Constitutive activation of
Overexpression of
Overexpression of
Oncogenes
transcription factors
Matrix metalloproteases
HER2
AP-1& NF-B
Cyclooxygenase-2
Growth factors
Adhesion molecules
(e.g; EGF, PDGF, FGF)
Chemokine
Tumor Suppressor genes
Growth factor receptors
TNF
Survival factors
(e.g; Survivin,Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl)
Cyclin D1
Decoy receptor
Transformation
Proliferation
Invasion
Normal
Tumor
Tumor
Tumor
cells
cells
growth
Metastasis
curcumin

Activation of transcription factor
Nuclear Factor-kappa B is
suppressed by curcumin
Singh S, and Aggarwal BB.
J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 20;270 (42):24995-5000.

Role of NF-B in Development of Cancer
Tumor promotion
Anti-apoptosis/survival
e.g; COX2, iNOS, MMP-9, uPA
e.g; bcl-xl, cIAP, survivin, cFLIP,
TRAF, SOD, -GCS
Inflammation
Proliferation
TNF, IL-1, Chemokines
NF-B
e.g; TNF, IL-1, IL-6
Angiogenesis
VEGF, TNF, IL-1, IL-8
Metastasis
e.g; ICAM-1, VCAM-1, ELAM-1

Curcumin inhibits constitutive NF-
B, IB kinase, inhibits
proliferation, and induces apoptosis
in human multiple myeloma cells
Bharti A., Donato N., Singh S., Aggarwal B.B.
BLOOD, 101, 2003, 1053-1062

Curcumin Inhibits Constitutive
and Interleukin-6-Inducible
STAT3 Phosphorylation in
Human Multiple Myeloma Cells
Alok C. Bharti, Nicholas Donato, and
Bharat B. Aggarwal
(
Journal of Immunology, in press)

Nuclear Factor-B and STAT3
are Constitutively Active in
CD138+ Cells Derived from
Multiple Myeloma Patients and
Their Suppression Leads to
Apoptosis
Alok C. Bharti, James M. Reuben, Donna Weber,
Raymond Alexanian, Moshe Talpaz and
Bharat B. Aggarwal
(submitted)

Curcumin inhibits TNF-
mediated NF-B activation
leading to suppression of
expression of cell surface
adhesion molecules in
endothelial cells
Kumar A. and Aggarwal B. B.,
Biochem. Pharmacol. 55, 775-783, 1998

Curcumin induces apoptosis
through activation of caspase-8,
BID cleavage and cytochrome C
release
Anto R. J., Mukhopadhyay A., Denning K., and
Aggarwal B.B.,
Carcinogenesis, 23, 143, 2002

Curcumin inhibits cyclin D1
expression through transcriptional
and post-transcriptional regulation
Mukhopadhyay A., Banerjee S., Stafford LJ,
Xia CX., Liu M., and Aggarwal BB,
ONCOGENE, 21, 8852, 2002

Curcumin Inhibits Receptor
Activator of NF-BLigand-
Induced NF-B Activation in
Osteoclast Precursors and
Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis
Alok C. Bharti and Bharat B. Aggarwal
(submitted)

Antiproliferative effect of
curcumin against human breast
tumor cell lines.
Mehta K, Pantazis P, McQueen T,
Aggarwal BB.
Anticancer Drugs. 1997 Jun;8(5):470-81.

Curcumin Suppresses Metastasis
in a Human Breast Cancer
Xenograft Model:
Association With Suppression of Nuclear Factor-B,
Cycloxygenase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinases
Bharat B. Aggarwal, Shishir Shishodia, Sanjeev
Banerjee, Robert A. Newman,
Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos and Janet E. Price
(submitted)

Curcumin downregulates cell
survival mechanisms in human
prostate cancer cell lines
Mukhopadhyay A, Bueso-Ramos C, Chatterjee D,
Pantazis P, Aggarwal BB.
Oncogene. 2001 Nov 15; 20 (52):7597-609.

Curcumin and prostate cancer
Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human
prostate cancer
III. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces
apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP
prostate cancer cells in vivo
Dorai T, Cao YC, Dorai B, Buttyan R, Katz AE
Prostate. 2001 Jun 1;47(4):293-303.

Curcumin Downregulates the
Constitutive Activation of NF-B
and IB Kinase
in Human Head and Neck
Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells
Leading to Suppression of
Proliferation and Induction of
Apoptosis:
Modulation of Cyclin D1, MMP-9 and COX-2
S. Aggarwal, Y. Takada, S. Singh, J. Myers and B. B. Aggarwal,
(submitted)

Curcumin Downregulates Cigarette
Smoke -Induced NF-B Activation
Through Inhibition of IB Kinase
in Human Lung Epithelial Cells:
Correlation with Suppression of
COX-2, MMP-9 and Cyclin D1
S. Shishodia, P. Potdar, C. G. Gairola and
B. B. Aggarwal,
Carcinogenesis 24, 2003, 1269-1279

Nuclear Factor-B and IBKinase
are Constitutively Active in
Human Pancreatic Cells and their
Down-regulation by Curcumin is
Associated with Suppression of
Proliferation and Induction of
Apoptosis
Lan Li, Bharat B. Aggarwal, Shishir Shishodia,
James Abbruzzese and Razelle Kurzrock
(submitted)

Molecular targets of curcumin
Gene expression
Transcription factor
Chemokines
NF-B
Cyclin D1
AP-1
MMP9
Egr-1
COX2
STAT1
5-LOX
STAT3
iNOS
STAT5
IL-12
PPAR-
TNF
EpRE
IL-6
CBP
IL-8
Curcumin
-catenin
Others
Protein Kinases
ICAM-1
IB kinase
VCAM-1
EGFR
ELAM-1
HER2
TF
AKT
Bcl-2
Enzymes
JAK2
Bcl-xl
FTPase
TYK2
P53
Xanthine oxidase
JNK
AR/ARP
Hemeoxygenase
PKC
MDR
Src
uPA
Telomerase
PKA
GST
CyclinD1
GSH-px

Clinical studies with curcumin in human subjects
Study
Patients
Dose
Comments
Ref.
Double blind,
18 pts.
1200 mg /day
Antirheumatic
Deodar et al
cross-over
(22-48 yrs)
x 2wks
(1980)
46 male pts.
400 mg; 3x/day
Inguinal hernia
Satosakar etal
(15-68)
x5 days
(1986)
111 pts. (40-85yrs.)
Topical
HNSCC, Breast
Kuttan etal
Vulva, Skin
1987
10 volun.
500 mg/day
Serum cholesterol Soni & Kuttan
x7 days
& LPO
(1992)
40 pts.
625 mg; 4x/day
well-tolerated
James
x 8 wks
(1994)
53 pts.
375 mg; 3x/day
Chronic anterior
Lal etal
x12 wks
uveitis
(1999)
8 pts.
375 mg; 3x/day
Idiopathic inflamm.
Lal etal
6-22 months
orbital pseudotumors (2000)
Prospective
25 pts.
500 mg-12,000mg/day
H&N cancers
Cheng etal
Phase I
x3 months
(2001)
15 pts.
36-180 mg
Colorectal
Sharma etal
4 months
Serum GST-down
(2001)

Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent,
in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions.
Cheng AL, et al Anticancer Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4B):2895-900.
Tested on
25 pts (13 men & 12 women) with a median age of 60 yrs (36-77)
Curcumin was administered orally
8000 mg/day
Patients
No.
Histological response
Recently resected bladder cancer;
2
1/2
Oral leukoplakia,
7
2/7
Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach;
6
1/6
CIN
4
1/4
Bowen's disease
6
2/6
All pts (except 2) completed
3 months treatment regimen
Peak serum conc. of curcumin at 1-2 h after oral intake was
0.4-1.6 uM
Conclusion:
Curcumin is not toxic to humans even at the high dose (8000 mg/day).

Influence of piperine (Trikatu) on the pharmacokinetics of
curcumin in animals and human volunteers
Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS
.
Planta Med. 1998;64:353-6.
Due to its rapid metabolism in the liver and intestinal wall curcumin has
poor bioavailability.
Piperine, an inhibitor of hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation, enhances
the bioavailability of curcumin in rats and healthy human volunteers.
In rats, a dose of 2g/kg curcumin, gave moderate serum levels over 4 h
period, but combining with piperine 20 mg/kg increased the
bioavailability
by 154%.
In humans, at dose of 2 g curcumin, serum levels were undetectable , but
concomitant with piperine 20 mg,
increased the bioavailability by 2000%.
Conclusion: Piperine enhances the serum concentration, extent of
absorption and bioavailability of curcumin in both rats and humans with no
adverse effects

Sources of curcumin (60-98%)
Human use:
Sabinsa (
http://www.sabinsa.com/products/circumin_book.htm; Piscataway, NJ)
Kalsec (
http://www.kalsec.com/products/turmeric_over.cfm; Kalamazoo, MI )
Life Extension (
http://www.lef.org/newshop/items/item00552.html?source=WebProtProd )
Turmeric Curcumin (
http://www.turmeric-curcumin.com/)
Iherb (
http://www.iherb.com/curcumin1.html)
Club Natural (
http://www.clubnatural.com/curex9550180.html, Irvine, California)
American Nutrition (
www.AmericanNutrition.com)
Amerifit (
www.amerifit.geomerx.com/items/ categories.cfm?categoryid=2, Bloomfield, CT);
XKMS (
www.xkms.org/WebVitamins-32/Curcumin-Power-60C.htm);
Immune Support (
https://www.Immunesupport.com/shop/prodlisting.cfm?NOTE=NOC);
Nature's (
www.naturesnutrition.com/SKU/55114.htm)
Big Fitness (
www.bfwse.com/jr-021.html)
Powerhouse Gym (
http://store.yahoo.com/musclespot/curcumin95.html),MMS
MMS Pro
(http://www.mmspro.com/.
Herbal Fields (
http://www.herbalfields.com/curcumin.html)
Research use:
Sigma Aldrich
(
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/cgibin/hsrun/Distributed/HahtShop/HAHTpage/HS_CatalogSearch)
Calbiochem (
http://www.calbiochem.com/Products/ ProductDetail_CBCB.asp?catNO=239802
LKT laboratories. (
www.lktlabs.com)

Anticancer potential of curcumin:
preclinical and clinical studies
Aggarwal BB, Kumar A, Bharti AC.
Anticancer Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;23(1A):363-98.
Review.

Therapeutic potential of curcumin
Multiple
Cardiovasuclar diseases
Alzheimer
sclerosis
Cholestrol, platelet aggregation,
disease
inhibition of smooth muscle cell
Diabetes
proliferation
Chemotheraputic
Nephrotoxicity
Chemopreventive
Antioxidant
Skin, liver, colon, stomach
Gall-stones
Curcumin
Antiangiogenic
formation
Antiflammatory
Cataract formation
Arthritis
Cardiotoxicity
Wound healing
HIV replication
Lung fibrosis

Hypothesis!
NF-B activation mediates
carcinogenesis/
tumorigenesis and
inhibition of NF-B
activation suppresses
tumorigenesis

Turmeric can reduce radiotherapy-induced side-
effects
(Date :10/15/2002)
Close on the heels of the report regarding the effectiveness of turmeric curcumin in
treating radiation therapy burns, an
Oxford University scientist at the Research Institute
of Oxford's Churchill Hospital has invented a new non-toxic compound therapy, based
on turmeric, which has shown positive results in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced
side effects.
More than
50% of cancer patients receive radiotherapy at one stage in their course of
treatment, and normal tissue damage is the most important limiting factor in using this
method. A particular side effect of the treatment of
head and neck cancers is a disorder
known as
mucositis, where the lining of the mouth becomes inflamed and can
disintegrate altogether. This can be an extremely painful and debilitating problem for
patients who may quickly be forced to forgo solid food.
Other possible side effects of radiotherapy are
damage to the spinal chord, possibly
leading to paralysis, and damage to the brain which can cause dementia. At present
there is no standard treatment for these disorders and the damage caused will often
lead to a reduction in the dose of the radiation that may be administered, thereby
affecting its efficacy.
Now a
combination therapy has been identified that significantly reduces the
incidence and shortens the duration of
radiation-induced mucositis. The therapy has
been studied in a biological model and in this model its effectiveness was startling,
according to the research. It has also shown efficacy in
preventing central nervous
system and skin damage
. Furthermore, as the compound is non-toxic, quick
advancement to the clinical trial stage is possible.

Turmeric good for Radiation Burn
Date :10/10/2002
Researchers in the United States have found that turmeric, a spicy ingredient in
many curries, and widely used in Asian cuisines, may
prevent skin blistering and
redness
associated with cancer radiation therapy.
The compound, which gives the spice turmeric its yellow color, was effective in
tests on mice. Turmeric is found in everything from mild Kormas to the hottest
Vindaloos. The crucial chemical - curcumin - has long been used as a traditional
medicine. It is now being investigated for the treatment of
colon cancer and
Alzheimer`s disease as well as burns
. The spice is thought to work as an anti-
inflammatory agent. It is said to have a number of other health benefits as well,
such as aiding digestion and helping fight infection.
In the latest study, a team at the
University of Rochester`s Wilmot Cancer Center
tested the ingredient on 200 mice. Mice given curcumin had fewer blisters and
burns after a single dose of radiation, said
Dr Ivan Ding, who helped carry out the
study.
The authors of the US study however, warn that curcumin must be tested in
other animals, and then in people, before it is accepted as valid.
Professor Andy
Gescher of the department of Oncology at Leicester University,
UK, is part of a team
testing
curcumin capsules on colon cancer sufferers. He believes there is anecdotal
evidence to suggest that members of the Asian community in the city may be better
able to resist colon cancer because they use the spice in cooking.

Common Spice May Protect Skin During Radiation Therapy for Cancer
10/07/2002 ; Leslie White; (585) 273-1119; leslie_white@urmc.rochester.edu
Cancer researchers at the
University of Rochester Medical Center have found that curcumin, a
substance in curry long believed to have health benefits, seems
to protect skin during radiation
therapy.
Doctors say that while further study is needed, cancer patients could consider eating foods
with curry
during their radiation treatment.
Curcumin, the substance that gives turmeric its yellow color, is a natural anti-inflammatory compound
and scientists have already shown that it can suppress tumor blood vessel growth. This process,
called anti-angiogenesis, can strangle tumors. Now, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center researchers have
discovered through a study of mice that
curcumin may protect skin from the burns and blisters that
often occur during radiation treatment.
"This is significant because skin damage is a real problem for patients undergoing radiation to treat
their tumors. If a non-toxic, natural substance can help prevent this damage and enhance the
effectiveness of our radiation, that's a winning situation," said
Paul Okunieff , M.D., chief of radiation
oncology
at the Wilmot Cancer Center. Scientists presented results of the pilot study at the 44th
annual meeting of the
American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology on Monday, Oct. 7,
in New Orleans. The team of researchers, led by
Ivan Ding, M.D., assistant professor of radiation
oncology, studied the impact of various doses of curcumin on skin protection in mice given radiation
therapy. The difference in skin damage was dramatic. "There were far fewer blisters or burns on the
mice who had been given curcumin," Ding said.
In the study, 200 mice were given three different doses of curcumin for five to seven days. On the fifth
day, mice were given a single dose of radiation and scientists waited 20 days to assess skin damage.
The mice who received curcumin had minimal skin damage caused by radiation. Scientists also found
the
substance suppresses development of new cells in the area of tumor, thus furthering the
effectiveness of radiation. While doctors are not ready to say that curcumin is the answer to
preventing skin damage, researchers believe the results demonstrate the need for more extensive
study. Researchers plan further scrutiny of curcumin and combinations with other anti-inflammatory
compounds to determine what could be the best way to prevent skin damage, Ding said.
"Nearly all cancer patients who get radiation treatment experience some form of skin damage from
mild sunburn all the way to blisters that is painful for many,"
Okunieff said. "If we can find a simple
way to help prevent that, it would make treatment a bit easier."

Turmeric may help inhibit tumor growth
Date :10/12/2002
Close on the heels of the discovery that curcumin, a compound found in
turmeric, may prevent skin blistering and redness associated with cancer
radiation therapy, researchers at the
Kumamoto University in Japan have now
found that the compound may be capable of working as a potent agent that
reduces tumor promotion in the body.
The study showed that curcumin
suppresses production of a protein,
interleukin-8
(IL-8), that spurs tumor growth in the body.
The researchers mixed
human pancreatic cancer cells with different
amounts of curcumin. It was found that curcumin inhibited the production of IL-
8, a protein that attracts white blood cells to a particular site and leads to
inflammation. Curcumin also reduced the activity of
NF-kappaB, a molecule
that helps regulate the gene that produces IL-8.
While tumor cells are known to secrete high levels of inflammation-
promoting proteins like IL-8, the exact role of these proteins in cancer is
unclear. Previous research suggests that the compounds (proteins) may spur
the proliferation of tumor cells and suppress the immune system. "Regardless
of the mechanism, controlling levels of these compounds (proteins) may have
an important role in therapy for patients with malignant disease,"
Dr. Hideki
Hidaka
and his colleagues from the University conclude.

Spice that stems liver disease caused by liquor
Washington, Mar 20 (ANI): A new study has found that a
curcumin, an essential ingredient of
curry, prevents alcohol-related liver damage.
The study on
rats has found that the substance that gives the spice turmeric its distinctive
yellow colour, stopped the changes caused by excessive alcohol consumption that lead to liver
disease.
The research, published in
American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver
Physiology, adds to the repertoire of benefits already shown by curcumin, which include anti-
oxidant properties and anti-cancer activity. However, it does not mean that people eating
curries can safely drink more alcohol, warns
Kalle Jokelainen, one of the team of Finnish and
American researchers.
"Curcumin is not harmful, and it may protect your liver from liver disease if you have very high
amounts - but this has only been seen in rats," he says.
For the study, the team gave rats
fish oil with either ethanol or dextrose added for four weeks.
The rats that also received doses of
curcumin did not develop the fatty livers, necrosis and
inflammation seen in those not given the spice extract.
Furthermore, the doses used in the experiments were much greater than would ever be used in
cooking with turmeric, he says. Alcoholic liver disease is a serious problem, he says, but the
answer is to drink less.
Jokelainen, at
Helsinki University Central Hospital, said that curcumin somehow blocks the
activation of a key molecule called
NFkB.
This molecule directs the chain of events that leads to inflammation and death of tissue. It is
activated by many stimuli including radiation, heat shock and endotoxins - the toxins
associated with bacteria.
"If you drink too much, that leads to
leaky gut syndrome," Jokelainen told New Scientist.
"Somehow
endotoxins from the gut reach the blood and are carried to the liver. The liver is a
filter and inactivates the endotoxin, but the price paid is that
NFkB is activated." (ANI)

More evidence curry ingredient may fight cancer
2003-03-13 10:00:26 -0400 ; By Alison McCook
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - An ingredient in the curry spice turmeric may help suppress and destroy a blood
cancer, early lab research shows--suggesting yet another health benefit from this long-heralded substance.
Turmeric is a common ingredient in Indian food and yellow mustard. Its active ingredient is curcumin, which gives
turmeric its yellow color. Adding curcumin to human cells with the blood cancer
multiple myeloma, Dr. Bharat B.
Aggarwal of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston
and his colleagues found, stopped the
cells from replicating. And the cells that were left died. Although the study did not test the benefits of curcumin in
patients, previous research has shown the substance may fight other types of cancers, Aggarwal told Reuters
Health. Studies have also shown that curcumin, even in large quantities, does not produce any known side effects in
humans, the researcher noted. Based on this evidence, Aggarwal recommended that people with cancer should try
to eat more curcumin, if possible. "Whichever way you can take it, as much as possible," he said.
Aggarwal added, however, that further research is needed to determine how much curcumin people need to get the
most benefits. Previous laboratory research has shown that curcumin may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
properties, as well as treat and prevent cancer. Studies in the lab and in animals also suggest that the compound
might help
heal wounds and fight Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Patients with multiple myeloma are in
particular need of new treatments, Aggarwal and his colleagues point out in their report in the journal Blood. Once
diagnosed with this blood cancer, patients typically live between
two and three years. During the current study, the
researchers added curcumin to a sample of human cells with multiple myeloma, and observed how the substance
influenced the progression of the cancer. In an interview, Aggarwal explained that curcumin appears to block the
activity of a "light switch" called
nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB). When turned on, he said, NF-kappaB appears
to then turn on many genes linked to cancer. Examining the multiple myeloma cells before adding the curcumin, the
authors found that virtually all contained activated forms of NF-kappaB. After adding curcumin, however, NF-kappaB
activity was inhibited, the multiple myeloma cells no longer replicated and the remaining cells died, Aggarwal said.
Aggarwal explained that it is somewhat difficult to study the effects of curcumin in a large number of patients
because these experiments cost a lot of money. Funding for similar research is often provided by a company that
stands to benefit if the tested treatment works; however, in the case of curcumin, a natural compound, no company
can reap the benefits if turmeric shows itself to be an effective anti-cancer drug, he said. However, Aggarwal said
that he hopes the new findings and previous research suggesting curcumin's benefits inspire other researchers to
continue investigating its properties. If curcumin is, in fact, an effective and safe treatment for cancer, studying it
further can only be a "win-win situation," Aggarwal predicted.
SOURCE: Blood 2003;101:1053-1062.

Leading Pigment in a Common Indian Spice Can
Prevent Onset of Alcoholic Liver Disease, Study Finds
Donna Krupa: 703.527.7357; Cell: 703.967.2751 or
djkrupa1@aol.com
The yellow substance found in the pigment for curry prevents activation
of a genetic factor leading to liver inflammation and necrosis.
Source:
February 2003 edition of the American Journal of Physiology--
Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.
The authors of "
Curcumin Prevents Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease in
Rats by Inhibiting the Expression of NF-KB-Dependent Genes
," are
Amin A. Nanji
, from the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center,
Philadelphia, PA; Kalle Jokelainen, at the Helsinki University Central
Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; George L. Tipoe, from the University of Hong
Kong, Hong Kong;
Amir Rahemtulla, from the Harvard Medical School,
Boston, MA; Peter Thomas, from the Boston University School of
Medicine in Boston; and
Andrew J. Dannenberg from the Weill Medical
College of
Cornell University and Anne Fisher Nutrition Center at the
Strang Cancer Prevention Center, New York, NY.

A little more than what grandma said: Haldi might keep cancer away Mumbai lab to
launch human trials as part of global effort under the aegis of National Institute of
Health, USA
Reshma Patil
Mumbai, January 15: Can eating a little bit of haldi every day keep cancer away? Could
the next cancer drug be stirred in spoonfuls of curry? Well, turmeric is grandma's home
remedy for everything from cold to injuries. Now the humble Indian spice is being tested
in differing fashions in two national laboratories -- with stunning results -- against
cancer. ``Turmeric shows a lot of promise in delaying the onset of cancer,'' says
Girish
Maru
, head of the carcinogenesis division at Mumbai's Tata Memorial Centre. TMC is
one of eight global centres where human trials with a constituent of turmeric are about
to be launched. It all starts from the cages of Swiss Albino mice at a TMC lab. When the
groups of five mice scurrying around their cages are thirsty, they
sip water laced with
curcumin
-- an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory yellow pigment that makes up nearly
five per cent of turmeric
. The mice have been exposed to carcinogens and the curcumin
diet continues for several weeks before, during and after carcinogen exposure. The
result: ``
A remarkable decrease in tumour incidence and multiplicity'' for stomach,
colon, skin, liver and breast cancer
, says Maru.
The
human trials in Mumbai will focus on the prevention of oral cancer in ``several
thousand'' active and passive smokers
-- the mice have also been exposed to
chemicals that mimic diesel exhaust or tobacco smoke.
These trials on cancer survivors, patients and volunteers across the globe come under
the aegis of the
National Institute of Health (NIH) in the US. American backing came last
year,
a decade after Tata scientists first started probing cheap turmeric brought from the
markets. For now, it isn't clear what form anti-cancer turmeric medication might take if
the trials succeed. Maybe a
turmeric lozenge popped every day to keep cancer away. Or
turmeric paste
applied inside the cheeks on pre-malignant patches of leukoplakia in
reverse smokers -- as it's done at the
National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) in Hyderabad.

A little more than what grandma said: Haldi might keep cancer away
Mumbai lab to launch human trials as part of global effort under the
aegis of National Institute of Health, USA
Reshma Patil
Mumbai, January 15:. ``Our studies on mice and humans over the last 8-10 years have
shown potential biological activity in turmeric to prevent cancer,'' former NIN director
Kamala Krishnaswamy
told The Indian Express. She's not worried about US
competition. ``Whole turmeric ingested through diet is better for cancer prevention than
isolated curcumin. Of course, if USA develops a drug, nobody in India will take it. They
could just eat 1-2 gm haldi every day,'' she says. Before Mumbai's clinical trials can
begin, the 20-member Tata team headed by Maru, who has devoted the last 12 years to
chemoprevention, is busy developing bio markers funded by the Indian Council of
Medical Research (ICMR). The three-year development period started 2002 and markers
will verify doses taken by volunteers. ``People may be
unwilling to apply turmeric paste
inside the mouth
because of staining, so we have to work out doses and alternative
methods,'' says Maru. Time is running out and competition is keen. International
research backs Indian advances. ``Doctors say that while future study is needed,
cancer
patients should consider eating food with curry during their radiation treatment
,'' the
University of Rochester
announced last October, pleased with the health of 200 mice fed
a diet of curcumin. ``Curcumin is a substance in curry long believed to have health
benefits. It seems to protect skin during radiation therapy,'' says the university's
research posted online.
The
Ohio State University of Columbus has also posted exciting reports that turmeric
has ``demonstrated anti-cancer effects at all stages of tumor development in rodents
and showed
potential to kill cancer cells and prevent normal cells from being
cancerous
.''

Curry Spice May Inhibit Tumor Growth
NEW YORK OCT 08, 2002 (Reuters Health) - A compound found in the
curry spice turmeric may
suppress production of a protein that spurs tumor growth in the body
, researchers report.
According to their study, curcumin inhibited the production of
interleukin-8 (IL-8), a protein that
attracts white blood cells to a particular site and leads to inflammation. The compound also reduced
the activity of NF-kappaB, a molecule that helps regulate the gene that produces IL-8.
While tumor cells are known to secrete high levels of inflammation-promoting proteins like IL-8, the
exact role of these proteins in cancer is unclear. Previous research suggests that the compounds
may spur the proliferation of tumor cells and suppress the immune system.
Regardless of the mechanism, controlling levels of these compounds "may have an important role in
therapy for patients with malignant disease,"
Dr. Hideki Hidaka from Kumamoto University in
Kumamoto, Japan
and colleagues conclude.
The researchers mixed
human pancreatic cancer cells with different amounts of curcumin, which is
the substance that gives turmeric its yellow color. The production of IL-8 and the activity of NF-kB
fell with increasing doses of curcumin.
If the spice component does indeed reduce IL-8 activities as the findings suggest, "curcumin is
capable of working as a potent agent that reduces tumor promotion," the researchers conclude.
The study, in a recent issue of the journal Cancer, is not the first to link curcumin, a compound
thought to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent, with certain health benefits. Studies also suggest
that the compound might help heal wounds and fight Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis.
* Cancer 2002;95:1206-1214.

The British are investigating the possible connection between
curcumin and treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Anything to this?
Richard Bray (Published 06/12/2002)
The Brits aren't alone in this effort. Researchers here in the United States have been pursuing clues
to the effects of curcumin, a compound found in the spice turmeric that is responsible for the yellow
color of
Indian curry and American mustard. Studies show that elderly villagers in India appear to
have the lowest rate of Alzheimer's disease in the world.
Researchers speculate that curcumin,
which has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties might play a role, because
Indians
eat turmeric with almost every meal.
In a recent study at the
University of California at Los Angeles, scientists fed curcumin to rats prone
to
accumulate beta-amyloid plaque in their brains the abnormality associated with Alzheimer's
disease in humans. Curcumin blocked the accumulation of beta-amaloid plaque and also appeared
to reduce inflammation related to Alzheimer's disease in neurologic tissue. The
rats fed curcumin
also performed better on memory tests than rats on normal diets.
The UCLA study isn't the only one that suggests that curcumin might prove helpful for treatment and
prevention of Alzheimer's. Researchers at the
University of Illinois have also found that it helps
prevent plaque formation. And preliminary studies at
Vanderbilt University suggest that curcumin
may block the progression of multiple sclerosis
. Mice with an MS-like illness showed little or no
signs of disease after being injected with curcumin, while their untreated counter parts went on to
severe paralysis. New research from
Japan also suggests that turmeric may help prevent colitis, an
inflammation of the colon.
My friend
Paul Schulick of New Chapter, Inc., who brought me up to speed on the latest curcumin
research, tells me that
only low dose curcumin reduced plaque in the Alzheimer's disease studies.
This is good news since it suggests that curcumin is most effective at doses well below
pharmaceutical strength. Schulick also emphasizes that turmeric contains many other compounds
besides curcumin and points out that people in India consume the whole spice not an isolated
element. Turmeric appears to have significant anti-inflammatory and cancer-protective effects as
well, so I think it is good to find ways to include it in our diets.

Important substance in curry conciliate
Inflamed Colon
Medindia Health News
June 9, 2002
According to a research, on laboratory animals, the curry spice turmeric
may help reduce and even
prevent inflammation of the intestines. The
spice contains curcumin, a compound thought to be a potent anti-
inflammatory agent effective in wound healing.
Dr. Ken Sugimoto,
of the department of internal medicine at the
Hamamatsu University School of Medicine,
Japan, showed that curcumin
can improve experimental colitis. The researchers induced severe colitis,
or colon inflammation, in mice using a chemical and immediately gave the
mice a diet containing 1% to 2% curcumin for a week. The mice are used
to study
inflammatory bowel disease, a group of conditions in humans
that can result in intestinal inflammation, cramping and chronic diarrhea.
The researchers also gave some of the mice a
2% diet of curcumin before
the
colitis was induced, in order to see whether the compound had a
preventive effect, and 2 days after colitis was induced, to see whether the
substance had healing powers if administered at a later point. The mice
who received no curcumin had a 30% death rate due to colitis
.

Curry Spice May Slow Multiple Sclerosis Progression
Interest in the potential neuroprotective properties of curcumin rose after studies found
very low levels of
neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, in elderly Indian populations.
Added to this were
studies confirming curcumin as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, effective in wound healing. And just last
fall, researchers at the
University of California, Los Angeles reported that curcumin appeared to slow the
progression of Alzheimer's disease in mice
. Preliminary studies in mice suggest that curcumin, a
compound found in the curry spice turmeric, may block the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Dr.
Chandramohan Natarajan
, of Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, observed that mice injected
with curcumin showed little or no disease symptoms, while untreated animals went on to develop severe
paralysis.
"We got a very good inhibition of the disease by treating with curcumin," Dr. Natarajan told Reuters
Health. He presented the findings here Tuesday at the annual Experimental Biology 2002 conference. In
their 30-day study, Dr. Natarajan and co-researcher
Dr. John Bright administered 50- and 100-microgram
doses
of curcumin, three times per week, to a group of mice bred to develop experimental autoimmune
encephalomyelitis (EAE). They then monitored the mice for signs of MS-like neurological impairment.
In contrast, mice given the 50-microgram dose of the curry compound showed only minor symptoms,
such as a temporarily stiff tail. And mice given the 100-microgram dose appeared completely unimpaired
throughout the 30 days of the study. The results did not surprise Dr. Natarajan. In Asian countries, such
as India and China, where people eat more spicy foods and more yellow compounds like curcumin,
reports of MS are "very, very rare," he pointed out. He said the doses the mice received were roughly
equivalent in human terms to those found in a typical Indian diet.
Just
how curcumin might work to thwart the progression of demyelinization remains unclear. But the
Nashville researchers believe it may interrupt the production of IL-12, which plays a key role in signaling
immune cells to attack the myelin sheath. Dr. Natarajan stressed that "we have to do a lot of work on this,"
including examining other potential mechanisms by which curcumin slows EAE and, potentially, MS. The
work remains preliminary, and MS patients should follow their doctor's advice when it comes to treating
the disease. Still, Dr. Natarajan said adding a little curry to the diet couldn't hurt. "I think using this spice
in their food could be of help," he said.

"Nuclear Factors Associated with Transcriptional Regulation"
(No. 6,410,516), June 25th, 2002
http://164.195.100.11/netahtml/srchnum.htm or
http://www.ariad.com/patents
Selected NF-B scientific papers is also available at
http://www.ariad.com/related_resources
.
Three patents in the U.S. and one in Europe, awarded. The latest patent includes
203 claims and
provides coverage relating to NF-B treatment methods through the year
2019.
NF-B can be generally thought of as a "biological switch" that can be turned off in cells to treat
these diseases. The activity of NF-B has been implicated in
atherosclerosis, arthritis,
inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and septic shock, malignant transformation
and tumor growth (e.g., certain blood cancers and solid tumors), and bone breakdown and
rebuilding (e.g., osteoporosis).
NF-B inventors include
Drs. David Baltimore, Phillip Sharp, Thomas Maniatis, Patrick Baeuerle,
Albert Baldwin, Roger Clerc, Lynn Corcoran, Chen-Ming Fan, Jonathan LeBowitz, Michael
Lenardo, Ranjan Sen, Harinder Singh, and Louis Staudt
.
ARIAD
NF-B drug targets:
-Controls cell proliferation and nutrient uptake by tumors to treat cancer.
-Bone-targeted drug candidate to treat the complications of cancer that has spread to bone.
-Regulated protein therapy product candidate to treat anemia in which the production of
erythropoietin is controlled in vivo using an orally administered drug.
-T cell immunotherapy product candidate in which a non-immunosuppressive drug may be
used to treat graft-vs-host disease following donor bone marrow transplantation - a therapy
for cancer and other immune and blood diseases
-Dual-action drug candidates that block bone resorption and stimulate bone formation to treat
osteoporosis.

Cancers incidence comparison between developed
countries (USA) and developing countries (India)
(1983-1987)
Cancer
United States
India
(Rates per 100,000)
Prostate
(Men)
61.8
6.9
Breast
(Women)
89.2
24.6
Colon/rectum
(Men)
46.3
6.4
(Women)
33.2
5.1
Stomach
(Men)
8.0
7.3
(Women)
3.5
4.3
Lung
(Men)
64.3
14.0
(Women)
29.9
3.0
Oesophagus
(Men)
4.0
11.4
(Women)
1.3
8.4
Source: Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspectives by
American Institute for Cancer Research, 1997

Working Model for Cigarette Smoke-Induced Damage
Cigarette smoke
ROS
Proliferation of SMC
Proliferation of tumor cells
Induction of EC adhesion molecules
NF-B
Suppression of apoptosis
Activation of macrophages
Induction of EC adhesion molecules
Induction of inflammatory
Induction of iNOS, MMP-9, VEGF, COX-2
cytokines, iNOS, MMP-9, TNF, TF
Cardiovascular diseases:
Chronic obstructive
Tumorigenesis:
Restenosis, Atherosclerosis
pulmonary diseases
Lung, larynx, oral cavity,
Myocardial infarction
(COPD):
pharynx, esophagus,
Chronic bronchitis &
pancreas, kidney and
Emphysema
bladder

Why NF-B is a good targets for cancer
drug development?
Activation of NF-B blocks apoptosis and mediates tumor
cell proliferation
Tumor cells frequently express constitutively activated
form of NF-B
Tumor microenvironment can induce NF-B activation
NF-B activation induces resistance to chemotherapeutic
agents
Several genes involved in tumor initiation, promotion, and
metastasis are regulated by NF-B.

Curcumin potentiates the effect of paclitaxel by inhibiting
the metastasis of the human breast cancer to the lung in
mouse xenograft model
Inject mammary fat pad of female nude mice with human breast
cancer cells (MDA-MB-435, 2 million cells)
Allow the tumors to reach to palpable size (10 mm mean diameter)
Anesthetize the mice and resect the tumors and close the skin incisions
Then randomize the mice into four treatment groups to receive:
1.
Control diet (vehicle injection, I.p.)
2.
Curcumin diet, (vehicle injection, I.p.)
3.
Control diet, paclitaxel (10 mg/kg, I.p.)
4.
Curcumin diet, paclitaxel (10 mg/kg, I.p.)
Paclitaxel was injected on day 10, 17 and 24 after tumor removal
Animals were given diet containing 2% curcumin (w/w) 5 day after
tumor removal
Five weeks after tumor removal, mice were killed and incidence of
metastases to the lung and other organs was recorded

Curcumin potentiates the effect of paclitaxel by suppressing the metastasis
of the human breast cancer to the lung in mouse xenograft model
100
13/14
(%)
10/12
80
lung
10/14
the
to
60
40
metastases
4/14
cancer
20
Vehicle
Paclitaxel
Curcumin
Paclitaxel+
(Cremophor)
curcumin
Breast
0
Treatment groups

Does curcumin enhances the
effect of paclitaxel by inhibiting
the metastasis of the human
breast cancer to the lung in
mouse xenograft model?
Aggarwal B. B, Shishodia S., Banerjee S., Newman R., Bueso-Ramos C.
and Price J.
(manuscript in prepration)

Dennis Schafer
Venture Partner
Academy Funds LLC
1606 Santa Rosa Road, Suite 121
Richmond, VA 23229
804-662-5666
SchaferDP@AOL.com

Treatment of
human multiple
myeloma by
curcumin
(filed 5/30/02)

Curcumin, analogues of
curcumin and novel
uses thereof.
Aggarwal, B.B. as inventor(s).
International Publication No. WO95/18606, date 7/13/95.