J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr 8589)
Noopur S. Raje, Wolfgang Willenbacher, Vania Hungria, Andrew Spencer, Yulia Alexeeva, Thierry Facon, A. Keith Stewart, David Roodman, Evangelos Terpos, Amy Feng, Ada Braun, Arun Balakumaran; Center for Multiple Myeloma, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA; Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; City Hospital #31, Saint Petersburg, Russia; Hôpital Claude Huriez, Lille, France; Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ; Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; University of Athens School of Medicine, Alexandra General Hospital, Athens, Greece; Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA
Background: Denosumab (dmab) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL and is superior to ZA in preventing skeletal-related events (SREs) as shown in 3 identically designed phase 3 trials (N=5723). Overall survival (OS) was balanced between treatment groups in the overall study populations of these trials. In the trial of patients (pts) with solid tumors (excluding breast and prostate) and multiple myeloma (MM), OS was longer for dmab pts with lung cancer, shorter for pts with MM, and balanced for pts with other solid tumors. This analysis further characterizes the results from the MM subset of this trial.
Methods: Pts with solid tumors or MM were randomized (1:1) to receive 120 mg of SC dmab or 4 mg of IV ZA Q4W. Daily calcium and vit D supplements were strongly recommended. The primary endpoint was the time to first on-study SRE; results from the primary endpoint and lung cancer subset were previously reported.
Results: Of 1776 randomized pts, 10% had MM (93 ZA, 87 dmab). OS favored ZA (hazard ratio: 2.26; 10 subject difference in deaths). 1-year OS was 83% dmab, 97% ZA. Imbalances in baseline prognostic characteristics were observed. More pts in the dmab arm had low baseline renal function (CrCl < 40 mL/min) (ZA 2 [2%], dmab 9 [10%]) and more ZA pts underwent stem cell transplant (ZA 23 [25%], dmab 15 [17%]). Additionally, more ZA pts had stage I tumors at diagnosis (ZA 13 [14%], dmab 9 [10%]) and better performance status (ECOG = 0; ZA 30 [32%], dmab 21 [24%]). Study discontinuations due to consent withdrawal or lost to follow-up were also higher in the ZA group (ZA 17 [18%], dmab 11 [13%]) and occurred earlier in the ZA arm (ZA 59%, dmab 45% within 9 months of randomization).
Conclusions: In this SRE study of dmab vs ZA, pts were stratified by baseline characteristics known to affect SRE outcomes, but not by prognostic factors or concurrent anticancer therapy that may impact survival in MM. OS results in the MM cohort are difficult to interpret due to small sample size and imbalances in baseline disease characteristics, stem cell transplant therapy, and consent withdrawal or loss of follow-up that favored ZA. A phase 3 trial is currently underway, which controls for these factors in pts with MM.
Clinical trial information: NCT00330759