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Dr. Laura Rosinol - Characteristics and outcome of 66 patients with extramedullary plasmacytomas included in a phase III Pethema/GEM study of induction therapy prior to ASCT in MM

Laura Rosinol, MD
Hematology
IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic
Barcelona, Spain

12.18.13

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 653. Myeloma: Therapy, excluding Transplantation: Poster II

Sunday, December 8, 2013, 6:30 PM-8:30 PM, Hall G (Ernest N. Morial Convention Center)

Laura Rosiñol, MD1*, Raquel Jiménez-Segura1*, Ana Isabel Teruel, MD2*, Javier De La Rubia, MD, PhD3*, Maria Victoria Mateos, MD, PhD4*, Miguel T. Hernandez5*, Dolores Hernández6*, M Jesús Blanchard7*, Belén Iñigo8*, Luis Palomera, MD9*, Isabel Krsnik, MD, PhD10*, Jose Francisco Tomas, MD11, Norma C. Gutiérrez12*, Jesús F. San Miguel, MD, PhD13, Juan José Lahuerta14* and Joan Blade, MD15

1Hematology, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain
2Hospital Clinico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
3Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain
4Hospital Universitario de Salamanca-IBSAL, Salamanca, Spain
5Servicio de Hematología Clinica, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain
6Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain
7Hematology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
8Hematology, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
9Hematology, Hospital Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain
10Hematology, Hospital Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Majadahonda, Spain
11Hematology-BMT Unit, MD Anderson Spain, Madrid, Spain
12Hospital Universitario de Salamanca; Centro de Investigación del Cáncer (CIC, IBMCC USAL-CSIC), Salamanca, Spain
13Hematology, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
14Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain
15Hematology, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Introduction: In April 2006,  the Spanish Myeloma Group (PETHEMA/GEM) initiated a randomized phase III trial (GEM05menos65) comparing induction with thalidomide/dexamethasone (TD) vs. bortezomiv/thalidomide/dexamethasone (VTD) vs. VBMCP/VBAD/Bortezomib (VBMCP/VBAD/B) in patients 65 years-old or younger with newly diagnosed symptomatic MM followed by ASCT with MEL-200 and maintenance therapy with interferon vs, thalidomide alone or bortezomib/thalidomide. The results of the overall series has been previously published. However, the efficacy of novel agents in patients with extramedullary disease is not well stablished.

Primary end points:  to describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with EMPs homogeneously treated in the GEM05menos65 trial.

Patients and Methods: TD consisted of thalidomide 200 mg daily (escalating doses in the first cycle) and dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1-4 and 9-12 at 4-week intervals for 6 cycles. The VTD regimen was identical to TD plus i.v. bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1,4,8,11 of each cycle. Combination chemotherapy  plus bortezomib consisted of 4 cycles of VBMCP/VBAD on an alternating basis followed by 2 cycles of i.v. bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 on days 1,4,8, and 11 every 3 weeks). The duration of the induction therapy was 24 weeks in all arms. From April 6, 2006 to August 5, 2009 the 390 planned patients entered the study. 66 patients (17%) had extramedullary plasmacytomas (median age: 54 years, M: 33, F: 33). The isotype was IgG: 41, IgA 11, Bence-Jones: 10, IgD:4; kappa:41, lambda: 25.The stage according to the ISS was I in 27 patients, II in 26  and III in 13 patients. The location of the EMPs was soft-tissue masses arising from lytic lesions in 60 patients, testicular mass with no contact with bone in 1 case and was not specified in 6 cases. Nine patients had multiple extraosseous plasmacytomas. 17 patients received induction therapy with VBMCP/VBAD/B, 23 with TD and 26 with VTD.

 Results: Cytogenetic information was available in 51 out of the 66 cases with EMPs and 12 of them (23%) showed high-risk cytogenetics. There were no differences in the incidence of high-risk cytogenetics (t(4;14), t(14;16) and del 17p)  in patients with and without EMPs (23% vs 21%). The incidence of t(4;14) in patients with and without EMP was 16% vs 23%, respectively. The incidence of del 17p was 10% and 6% in patients with and without EMPs.The IFE negative CR rate was significantly higher with VTD as compared to TD (42% vs 13%, p=0.02) while there was no significantly differences among VTD and VBMCP/VBAD/B (42% vs 29%, p=NS). Patients with EMP had a significantly higher rate of PD during induction therapy as compared to patients without EMPs (24% vs 11%, p=0.01). This higher rate of PD in patients with EMP was observed in the 3 induction arms (VBMCP/VBAD/B 24% vs 9%, TD 40% vs 19%, VTD 12% vs 6%). 43 patients received ASCT as part of the treatment design. On an intention to treat basis, the pos-ASCT CR rate was higher with VTD arm compared to TD (50% vs 22%, p=0.07) but not significantly different from VBMCP/VBAD/B (50% vs 41%, p=0.7). After a median follow-up of 46 months, there was no significant differences in PFS between patients with or without EMP (26.9 vs 39.9 months, p=0.47). Although the difference did not reach statistical significance, there was a trend towards a shorter PFS for patients with EMPs with high-risk cytogenetics (median 12.1 vs. 28.3 months, p=0.13). In patients with EMPS, the PFS was not reached in the VTD arm versus 26.9 months with VBMCP/VAB/B and 22.8 moths with TD. The OS was significantly shorter in patients with EMPs as compared to patients without EMPs (median 69.9 months vs not reached, p=0.02)

 Conclusions: 1) In the present study the frequency of EMPs was 17%, 2) the incidence of high-risk cytogenetics in patients with EMPs was similar to that observed in patients with no extramedullary disease, 3) patients with EMPs had a higher rate of progressive disease irrespective of the induction arm as compared to patients without EMPs, being VTD the best treatment option, 4) finally, the OS was significantly shorter in patients with EMPs.


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