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Dr. Robert Bergen - Monitoring minimum residual disease in MM patients by LC-MS/MS

H. Robert Bergen,
Proteomics Core, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN


Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 651. Myeloma: Biology and Pathophysiology, excluding Therapy: Poster II

Sunday, December 8, 2013, 6:30 PM-8:30 PM

Hall G (Ernest N. Morial Convention Center)

H. Robert Bergen III, PhD1*, David L Murray, M.D., Ph.D.2*, Diane F. Jelinek, PhD3, Renee C. Tschumper3*, David R Barnidge, Ph.D.4*, Marina Ramirez-Alvarado, Ph.D.5* and Surendra Dasari, Ph.D.6*

1Proteomics Core, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
2Dept. of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
3Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
4Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
5Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
6Biomedical statistics and informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

Proteomics with great sensitivity and specificity effectively analyzes proteins by prior tryptic digestion and subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS of the tryptic digest.  We have utilized this approach in the development of a LC-MS/MS method to characterize minimum residual disease in multiple myeloma.  The abundant antibodies produced by multiple myeloma plasma cells are identical and appear as a spike (M-spike) upon protein electrophoresis.  The M-spike and histological examination of the bone marrow constitute part of the myeloma diagnostic repertoire.   Upon treatment, myeloma cells and the antibodies they produce are reduced in number and amount and become increasingly hard to detect.  The bone marrow biopsy serves as the “gold standard” test for clinical remission. 

We have developed a sensitive test for the presence of the monoclonal antibody produced by the plasma cells which may serve as a substitute for invasive bone marrow biopsy.  We have focused on tryptic peptides comprising the variable CDR regions of the Ig light chains that are unique to each patients antibody clone.  Utilizing 2-5 µL of patient plasma/serum from the initial M-spike sample we have utilized SDS-PAGE to yield a crudely purified immunoglobulin light chain.  The light chain band is isolated, reduced, alkylated and trypsin digested with subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis to identify CDR specific tryptic peptide(s).  These can be identified as variable peaks (elution time and mass) in a base peak ion chromatogram where constant region peptides of either lambda or kappa light chains (clone dependent) serve as “internal standards” for identifying the CDR tryptic peptides.  The peptide’s mass and its corresponding MS/MS spectra are unique to this CDR tryptic peptide and this patient’s clone.  The unique diagnostic peptide is isolated in subsequent samples by immunoaffinity purification of the target kappa/lambda clone, SDS-PAGE separation and LC-MS/MS analysis of the light chain gel band.  An extracted ion chromatogram is generated based upon the CDR peptides identified in the initial analysis of the M-spike sample.  In patients in clinical remission the presence of a significant signal from the targeted peptides indicates that targeting a CDR peptide from the M-spike protein is more sensitive than currently available diagnostic tools including immunofixation.  Comparison of this test to the gold standard bone marrow biopsy will be examined.

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