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Patienten Handbuch

Das multiple Myelom ist eine Krebserkrankung des Knochenmarks. Trotz gelegentli- cher Berichte in den Medien ist diese Erkrankung in der Öffentlichkeit nur wenig bekannt. Diese Handbuch soll grundlegende Kenntnisse über die Erkrankung vermitteln und zeigen, wie Patienten lernen können, mit dieser Diagnose zu leben.

05.15.13

Der Name "MYELOM" leitet sich zum einen von "Myelo" ab, ein Begriff, der die blutbildenden Zellen im Knochenmark bezeichnet, "oma" bedeutet nichts anderes als Tumor. Bei den Tumorzellenn handelt es sich um bösartige Plasmazellen. Plasmazellen sind eine Untergruppe der weißen Blutzellen, die Antikörper (Immunglobuline) produzieren. Eine bösartige Plasmazelle wird auch Myelomzelle genannt. Das Myelom wird als "multipel" bezeichnet, da die Tumore oft an verschiedenen Stellen des Skelettsystems entstehen. Beim Vorliegen einer einzigen Läsion spricht man von einem solitären Plasmozytom. Dieses kann außerhalb oder innerhalb des Knochenmarks liegen.

Das Myelom befällt Knochenareale mit aktivem Knochenmark. Dies sind beim Erwachsenen primär die Wirbelsäule, Schädel, Beckenskelett, Rippen und auch Schulter- und Hüftbereich. Kaum betroffen sind Hände, Füße, Unterarme oder Unterschenkel, da sich dort weniger Hohlraum für das Mark zwischen dem kompakten Knochen befindet. Dies ist deshalb günstig, weil die Extremitäten somit oft von einer Funktionseinschränkung verschont bleiben.


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